A Novel Small RNA Promotes Motility and Virulence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Response to Ammonium

A Novel Small RNA Promotes Motility and Virulence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Response to Ammonium

Enterohemorrhagic¬†Escherichia coli¬†serotype O157:H7 (O157) is a crucial, foodborne, human intestinal pathogen that causes extreme acute hemorrhagic diarrhea, belly cramping, and even loss of life. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are noncoding regulatory molecules that sense environmental adjustments and set off numerous virulence-related signaling pathways; nonetheless, few such sRNAs have been recognized in O157. Here, we report a … Read more

Association between Serum Vitamin B12 and Global DNA Methylation in Colorectal Cancer Patients

Introduction: Recently we have identified a novel RASSF1C-PIWIL1-piRNA pathway that promotes lung cancer cell progression and migration. PIWI-like proteins interact with piRNAs to form complexes that regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. We have illustrated in previous work that RASSF1C modulates the expression of the PIWIL1-piRNA gene axis, suggesting the hypothesis that the RASSF1C-PIWI-piRNA pathway could potentially contribute to lung cancer stem cell development and progression, in part, through modulation of gene methylation of both oncogenic and tumor suppressor genes. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis using a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell model to identify Candidate Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs) modulated by the RASSF1C-PIWIL1-piRNA pathway. Materials and methods: We studied the impact of over-expressing RASSF1C and knocking down RASSF1C and PIWIL1 expression on global gene DNA methylation in the NSCLC cell line H1299 using the Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) method. Results: DMRs were identified by comparing DNA methylation profiles of experimental and control cells. Over-expression of RASSF1C and knocking down RASSF1C and PIWIL1 modulated DNA methylation of genomic regions; and statistically significant candidate genes residing DMR regions in lung cancer cells were identified, including oncogenes and tumor suppressors. One of the hypermethylated genes, Gem Interacting Protein (GMIP), displays tumor suppressor properties. GMIP expression attenuates lung cancer cell migration, and its over-expression is associated with longer survival of lung cancer patients. Conclusions: The RASSF1C-PIWI-piRNA pathway modulates key oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. GMIP is hypermethylated by this pathway and has tumor suppressor properties.

Vitamin B12 has been broadly associated to methionine metabolism, which is an integral part for organic methylation reactions, together with DNA methylation. However, the connection between vitamin B12 and DNA methylation continues to be controversial. In addition, there’s rising proof for the affiliation between vitamin B12 and the danger of colorectal most cancers (CRC), though … Read more